The connection ranging from blood direct account and you can hypertension as well as cardiovascular risk implications

The connection ranging from blood direct account and you can hypertension as well as cardiovascular risk implications

Rosenlund Yards, Berglind N, Hallqvist J, Bellander T, Bluhm G. 2005. Each day intake off magnesium and you can calcium out-of drinking water when you look at the family so you can myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 16(4):570-576.

Rubenowitz E, Axelsson Grams, Rylander Roentgen. 1996. Magnesium within the h2o and you will death regarding intense myocardial infarction. In the morning J Epidemiol 143(5):456-462.

Rubenowitz E, Axelsson Grams, Rylander Roentgen. 1999. Magnesium and you will calcium supplements within the liquid and you may death from severe myocardial infarction in females. Epidemiology 10(1):31-thirty six.

Rubenowitz E, Molin We, Axelsson G, Rylander R. 2000. Magnesium into the drinking water in terms of morbidity and you will mortality away from acute myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 11(4):416-421.

Sauvant MP, Pepin D. 2000. Geographic version of death out-of heart disease and h2o inside the a French short urban area (Puy de Dome). Environ Res 84(3):219-227.

Sinclair Ml, Schlosser O. 2007. Liquid softening: epidemiological research into the calcium and magnesium when you look at the water and cardio condition. Water21 – Mag of your Internationally Liquids Relationship Feb:8-19.

Theophanides T, Angiboust JF, Polissiou M, Anastassopoulou J, Manfait Yards. 1990. You’ll role away from liquids build in physical magnesium systems. Magnes Res step 3(1):5-13.

van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, van’t Veer P, Volovics A good, Hermus RJ, Sturmans F. 1990. A big-scale possible cohort study from diet and malignant tumors about Netherlands. J Clin Epidemiol 43(3):285-295.

VEWIN (Vereniging van Exploitanten van Waterbedrijven into the Nederland). 1986. Statistiek wateronderzoek 1986 [within the Dutch]. Rijswijk:Vereniging van Exploitanten van Waterbedrijven when you look at the Nederland.

Dating away from solution and you may fat reduction magnesium so you can event blood pressure levels: the newest Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study

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Lina J. Leurs, (1) Leo J. Schouten, (1) Margreet N. Mons, (2) Roentgen. Alexandra Goldbohm, (3) and you will PietA. van den Brandt (1)

Looking for an effective structure to have examining visibility-state dating into the an assembled cohort

(1) Maastricht University, GROW-College getting Oncology and you can Developmental Biology, Company of Epidemiology, Maastricht, the netherlands; (2) KWR, Watercycle Browse Institute, Nieuwegein, the netherlands; (3) TNO Standard of living, Agency of Prevention and you may Wellness, Leiden, holland

Target telecommunications in order to L.J. Leurs, Maastricht College or university, GROW-School to own Oncology and you will Developmental Biology, Department away from Epidemiology, P.O. Package 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the netherlands. Telephone: 29 0 43 3882392. Fax: 29 0 43 3884128. E-mail:

The audience is indebted into the players with the studies and want to thank the latest Dutch Main Bureau out-of Family history and you will Statistics Netherlands to possess taking analysis. We including give thanks to An excellent. Volovics and you will A. Kester to possess mathematical suggestions; S. van de Crommert, H. Brants, J. Nelissen, C. de- Zwart, Yards. Moll, W. van Dijk, and you may A. Pisters to possess direction; and you can H. van Montfort, T. van Moergasiel, L. van den Bosch, R. Schmeitz, and you may J. Berben to possess coding recommendations.

That it enterprise was used during the Shared Look System of your own Dutch water enterprises of the researchers out-of Maastricht University and you will KWR, Watercycle Search Institute. This research try financed because of the KWR, Watercycle Research Institute.

Roentgen.An effective.Grams. and M.Letter.Meters. work with asking companies (TNO Standard of living and you may KWR, respectively); however, neither features ever did one earlier in the day lookup towards the most recent matter demonstrated about manuscript. Furthermore, exterior breakdown of the design and you may abilities was used from the an effective Scientific Advisory Panel including P. Huntsman (University from East Anglia), Roentgen. Rylander (emeritus teacher), and M.We. Sinclair (Water Quality Browse Australia Restricted, Monash College).

Extremely knowledge one claimed an inverse relationship anywhere between drinking water stiffness and you will IHD or stroke mortality were ecologic training (Kousa et al. 2004, 2006, 2008; Maheswaran mais aussi al. 1999; ; Sauvant and you will Pepin 2000). The fresh new accuracy ones version of education is normally asked while the of your possible ecologic fallacy. Some circumstances-handle and you will cohort knowledge with little or no modifications to own confounding points and additionally advised a possible defensive effectation of liquids hardness, calcium otherwise magnesium concentrations inside water, into the death because of IHD or stroke (Luoma ainsi que al. 1983; Punsar and you will Karvonen 1979; Rubenowitz et al. 1996, 1999; Yang 1998; Yang ainsi que al. 2006). On top of that, most instance-manage and you may cohort knowledge that modified having countless potential confounders, like cardio chance products and h2o features, discover no matchmaking ranging from water stiffness and you will IHD otherwise heart attack mortality (Comstock et al. 1980; Morris ainsi que al. 2001; Rosenlund ainsi que al. 2005). The new different try the situation-handle data held by the Rubenowitz et al. (2000) you to stated straight down death from severe myocardial infarction (but not towards the overall occurrence) and you can magnesium when you look at the liquids shortly after changing getting a standard range off potential confounders.

Mineral consumption are modified having time intake of the residual strategy (Willett and you can Stampfer 1986). The new survey research were secret-registered twice and you will processed during the a standardized fashion dazzled with respect so you’re able to case/subcohort standing to reduce observer prejudice within the coding and you may research interpretation.

The analyzed exposure variables were total tap water hardness, tap water magnesium, and calcium concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we corrected for potential confounding of other known IHD risk factors: age at baseline (years), cigarette smoking (coded as current vs. never/former smoker and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and years of active smoking), hypertension (yes/no) The connection ranging from blood direct account and you can hypertension as well as cardiovascular risk implications, diabetes (yes/no), body mass index (BMI) (coded as < 18.5 kg/[m.sup.2], 18.5-25 kg/[m.sup.2], 25-30 kg/[m.sup.2], [greater than or equal to] 30 kg/[m.sup.2]), nonoccupational physical activity (coded in tour categories: very little, average, active, or very active), educational level [coded as primary school, lower vocational, high school (junior and senior), and higher vocational/university], total energy intake (kilocalories per day), alcohol consumption (coded in five categories: 0 g/day, 0.1-5 g/day, 5-15 g/day, 15-30 g/day, 2 30 g/day). energy-adjusted saturated/monounsaturated/ polyunsaturated fat consumption (grams per day), and fruit and vegetable consumption (grams per day). We included additional factors that influence the amount of calcium or magnesium absorption from tap water: use of diuretics (yes/no), multivitamin intake (yes/no), calcium supplement intake (yes/no), energy-adjusted dietary calcium and magnesium consumption (milligrams per clay), and total volume of tap water consumption (milliliters per day) (Elin 1988; Greenland et al. 2003; Hornstra et al. 1998; Wilson 1999). When tap water calcium concentration (milligrams per liter) was analyzed, additional adjustment for tap water magnesium concentration (milligrams per liter) occurred and vice versa.

Gillies Me personally, Paulin HV. 1983. Variability regarding nutrient consumption from liquid: a potential factor into debate along the matchmaking out-of drinking water high quality so you can cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol twelve(1):45-50.